SCIENCE CURRICULUM - ELEMENTARY LEVEL

INTRODUCTION

The Science Curriculum at the elementary school level contains basic concepts in science education, health and environmental education, and some aspects of sustainable development of local resources. The curriculum also emphasizes mental and manual science skills, values, and attitudes. It aims at bridging the gap between childrenís science knowledge and their daily conduct, thus making science more relevant to their life in the 21st century and to their aspirations for further education. The topics of the curriculum fall within six themes in all the grades : plants and their habitats - animals and their habitats - man and his health - matter and energy - the earth and the universe - man and the environment.

The content and objectives of the science curriculum for the elementary level were innovated in accordance with contemporary developments in science-technology-society and the new outlook in educational development in Lebanon. Besides that, the items were selected and organized using the criteria of interdependance, balance, sequence, and comprehensiveness. Thus, the curriculum would tend to the abilities, needs, and interests of the students.

A science curriculum is an integrated system of content, objectives, instruction, and evaluation. The basic approach in the present curriculum is to involve students actively in the learning process. This requires, in turn, an optimum balance between theoretical presentation of knowledge and practical science activities within and outside the classroom. In addition, modern individual and cooperative learning methods, the use of educational technology facilities, and coordination of science with other subject matter areas, particularly during the first cycle in the elementary school, are recommended.

The instructional objectives for the first and second cycles were stated in terms of the well known taxonomy of educational objectives. Thus, the cognitive achievement of students could he measured by objective tests. In other words, behavioral objectives could help students to recognize what is required of them in examinations.

The achievement of mental scientific skills by students is usually measured by objective tests. However, the acquisition of manual skills, values, and attitudes are normally evaluated by observation of student behavior over an extented period of time and follow up.

 

 

ELEMENTARY LEVEL - FIRST CYCLE

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the first cycle, students are expected to be able to:

-        Recognize the various aspects of growth and development in plants, animals, and children.

-        Describe some natural habitats and the specific living organisms in them.

-        Name the senses, their organs and functions, and mention the general functions of the human body.

-        Classify animals and the food we eat into suitable groups.

-        Observe animals, plants, and phenomena in the environment, and arrive at proper inferences based on observation and experience.

-        Communicate orally, in writing, and by symbols.

-        Acquire proper health and environmental personal habits.

-        Name sources of heat energy, relate changes of state to heat, and infer the effects of forceon objects.

-        Measure length, temperature, and time by suitable devices.

-        Carry out guided simple experiments and practice problem solving within the context of what is studied.

-        Develop self-confidence through individual activities, exploring environment, and beginning to understand the organization of human body.

-        Develop cooperation, respect, and positive interaction with others through team learning.

-        Orient their inherent curiosity into interesting science activities.

 

 

ELEMENTARY LEVEL - FIRST CYCLE

CONTENTS

First Year

1)      Plants and their Habitats

-        Plants in the childrenís environment.

-        Germination of seeds.

-        Growth of plants and their needs.

-        Protection of plants.

 

2)      Animals and their Habitats

-        Animals in the childrenís environment.

-        Places where animals live.

-        Growth of animals and their needs.

-        Care of domestic animals.

 

3)      Man and his Health

-        Growth and needs of children.

-        The senses: organs, functions, and importance.

-        Protection of sense organs.

-        Personal cleanliness, dental care.

 

4)      Matter and Energy

-        Importance of the sun for the Earth.

-        Effect of clouds on sunlight.

-        Role of air in moving objects.

-        Role of water in moving objects.

 

5)      The Earth and the Universe

-        Concept of daylight.

-        Concept of night.

-        Concept of day.

-        The four seasons and their features.

 

 

Second Year

1)      Plants and their Habitats

-        The garden and its components : an organized habitat.

-        Taking care of a garden.

-        Seasonal plants (a simple notion).

-        Role of greenhouses.

 

2)      Animals and their Habitats

-        Similarity, difference, and variation among animals.

-        External features of mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs and fish.

-        Respiration in some animals.

-        Benefits of some animals.

 

3)      Man and his Health

-        Principal parts of the human body.

-        Our body movements.

-        Care of eyes, hands, and mouth.

-        Food groups: their sources and importance.

-        Examples of traditional Lebanese cuisine.

-        Natural food and industrialized food.

-        Clean vegetables and fruits.

 

4)      Matter and Energy

-        Examples of nonliving things: sand, clay, pebbles, water, etc.

-        Properties of sand and clay in water.

-        Water cycle in nature (a simple notion).

-        The states of matter.

-        Role of push and pull in moving objects.

 

5)      The Earth and the Universe

-        Apparent movement of the sun.

-        Movement of shadows during daylight and in relation to the sun.

-        Determining time: periods of daytime.

-        Reading the time on a clock.

 

 

Third Year

1)      Plants and their Habitats

-        Principal parts of a green plant.

-        Basic components of a habitat.

-        Examples of natural habitats: the forest, the desert, the sea.

-        Plants which grow in the forest, in the desert, in the sea.

 

2)      Animals and their Habitats

-        The forest, the desert, the sea: natural habitats for animals.

-        Animals which live in the forest, in the desert, in the sea.

-        Sea pollution and its effect on food resources.

-        Childrenís responsibility in protecting the environment from pollution.

 

3)      Man and his Health

-        General functions in the human body.

-        General notion of the systems which carry out these functions.

-        Basic factors of healthy growth and development.

-        Protecting the body to keep healthy.

-        Protection from accidents, first aid.

 

4)      Matter and Energy

-        Sources of heat.

-        Heat and its relation to changes of state.

-        Principal properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

-        Capacity of liquids.

-        Transfer of heat between hot and cold bodies.

-        Temperature.

-        Devices for moving objects easily.

-        Concept of force: pulling, pushing, raising objects.

-        Magnets and the movement of some bodies.

 

5)      Earth and the Universe

-        Sources of the moonlight.

-        Phases of the moon.

-        The lunar month.

-        Temperature and its relation to weather.

-        Formation of winds.

-        Weather observation instruments, weather forecast.

-        Erosion of rocks: role of moving water.

 

 

 

ELEMENTARY LEVEL - SECOND CYCLE

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the second cycle, students are expected to be able to:

-        Identify the principal groups of living organisms and their nutrition modes, and distinguish their reproduction patterns.

-        Recognize the various systems in the human body, name the organs, explain their functions and activities, and describe nutrients and state their importance.

-        Infer the role of cells in living organisms.

-        Describe and apply some ways of protection from diseases, and precaution from accidents.

-        Name the components of a natural habitat and state the characteristics of fresh water habitats, and describe man-environment interaction.

-        Give a simple description of the water cycle, the oxygen cycle, the carbon cycle, and state the importance of each one.

-        Name the various forms of energy, describe transformations and uses of energy in everyday life, and also describe propagation of sound and light, and the flow of electricity and heat.

-        Name simple machines and explain their characteristics and everyday uses.

-        Identify the solar system and its members and define the movements of the earth.

-        Explain, with simple examples, the relation of science to industry and agriculture, and summarize the importance of sustainable development of resources and energy in Lebanon.

-        Give examples of chemical reaction between familiar substances.

-        Identify some survey, measurement, and information recording instruments.

-        Carry out observations by using devices and instruments, and do scientific classification on the basis of one or two criteria.

-        Carry out experiments and explain their results, plan experiments and control the variables, state expectations of what will happen in an experiment or in nature and compare them with the actual results.

-        Develop a sense of beauty by observing the beauty and order in nature.

-        Interact positively with the family and society by taking responsibility to keep oneself healthy and to protect the environment.

-        Develop objectivity, honesty, and persistence in science activities.

-        Develop science interests and a desire for excellence.

 

 

ELEMENTARY LEVEL - SECOND CYCLE

CONTENTS

Fourth Year

1)      Plants and their Habitats

-        Common wild plants in Lebanon

-        Freshwater habitats

-        Plants which grow in freshwater on the banks

-        Flowering plants

-        The conifers : cedar, pine, and cyprus

-        Non flowering plants : mushrooms

-        Principles of plant classification

-        Role of plants in the conservation of topsoil

-        Pollution of freshwater and its consequences.

 

2)      Animals and their Habitats

-        Wild animals in Lebanon

-        Freshwater animals

-        Vertebrates

-        Non-vertebrates

-        Principles of animal classification

-        Social insects: bees and ants.

 

3)      Man and His Health

-        Support and movement systems : skeleton and muscles

-        Care and safety of the skeletal and muscular systems

-        Food pyramid, maintaining a balanced diet

-        Malnutrition and its consequences.

 

4)      Matter and Energy

-        Examples of matter

-        Properties of matter

-        Measurement of mass

-        Mixtures and water solutions

-        Magnets: shapes, attraction and repulsion

-        Electric charges: production by friction, attraction and repulsion

-        Sound and some of its properties.

-        Propagation of sound

-        How we hear

-        Effect of noise on our health.

 

5)      The Earth and the Universe

-        Soil and its kinds

-        Clay and its uses in crafts.

-        Factors which cause soil erosion.

-        Sandstone and limestone.

-        Fossils in sandstone and limestone.

-        Breakdown of rocks and formation of soil.

-        Formation of subterranian water reservoirs.

 

 

Fifth Year

1)      Plants and their habitats

-        Patterns of nutrition in plants.

-        Needs of green plants for producing food materials for growth and reproduction.

-        Photosynthesis (a simple notion).

-        Respiration in plants.

-        Oxygen and carbon cycles in nature (a simple notion).

-        Benefits of plants to man.

-        Adaptation of plants to their habitats.

 

2)      Animals and their Habitats

-        Patterns of nutrition among animals.

-        Decomposers and their role in nature.

-        The food chain in a habitat.

-        Adaptation and behavior among animals.

 

3)      Man and his Health

-        Nutrients: kinds, sources, functions.

-        Role of water in the human body.

-        Digestive, respiratory, circulatory systems and their functions.

-        Protection of these systems, immunization.

-        Food safety, food preservation, role of food technology.

-        System of information on the labels of manufactured food.

 

4)      Matter and Energy

-        Sources of light.

-        Solar spectrum, the colors.

-        Passage of light through media.

-        Propagation of light, reflection, refraction.

-        How we see. Safety precautions.

-        The electric battery, the electric current.

-        Flow of electric current through various bodies.

-        Components of a simple electric circuit.

-        Series and parallel circuits.

-        Light and magnets from electric current.

-        Protection from electric currents.

-        The air: components, pollution.

-        Composition of water and a notion about elements and compounds.

 

5)      The Earth and the Universe

-        The solar system and its members.

-        The Earth and its spheres.

-        Atmospheric pressure: the barometer.

-        Factors which modify the surface of the Earth.

-        The water cycle and its relation to weather.

 

 

Sixth Year

1)      Plants and their habitats

-        Structure of green plants: plant cell, transport tubes.

-        Parts of a complete flower.

-        Sexual reproduction in flowering plants.

-        Vegetative reproduction and its importance in agriculture.

-        Manís role in the reproduction and hybridization of plants.

 

2)      Animals and their Habitats

-        The animal cell.

-        Reproduction in animals and aspects of adaptation.

-        Manís role in the reproduction and hybridization of animals.

-        Interdependance of plants and animals in a habitat.

 

3)      Man and his Health

-        Structure of human body: cells, tissues, organs, systems.

-        Nervous system, the skin and the urinary system.

-        Start of human body maturity.

-        The human body: a coordinated system.

-        Benefits of medical technology.

-        Effects of smoking, alcohol, and narcotics on our health.

 

4)      Man and Environment

-        Definition of natural environment and its components.

-        Interaction between man and environment.

-        Importance of natural reservation parks.

-        Sustainable development of resources in Lebanon (a simple notion)

-        Insecticides and their effect on the environment.

-        Various aspects of pollution in Lebanon and its consequences.

 

5)      Matter and Energy

-        Familiar chemical compounds: acids, bases, salts.

-        Chemical reactions between familiar substances.

-        Law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions.

-        Weight and its measurement.

-        Simple machines and their uses.

-        Some compound machines.

-        Work and power.

-        Technical instruction sheets.

-        Information recording and preservation equipment.

-        Energy: forms, transformations, importance.

-        Rules of safety and maintenance in the use of machines.

-        Sustainable development of energy sources (a simple notion).

 

6)      The Earth and the Universe

-        Movements of the earth around the sun.

-        Consequences of the movements of the earth.

-        Movement of the moon around the earth and its consequences.

-        Satellites and space ships.