CURRICULUM OF PHILOSOPHY AND CIVILIZATIONS

 

INTRODUCTION

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION OF PERIODS

 

secondary Second – HUMANITIES SECTION

Special Objectives

Content

 

secondary Second – Sciences SECTION

Special Objectives

Content

 

SECONDARY THIRD

Special Objectives

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The program of "Philosophy and Civilizations" starts from the data of the "new plan of Education in Lebanon", approved by the Council of ministers at 25/10/94. This material has been given:

3  weekly periods in the second secondary class:      Humanities Section

9  weekly periods in the third secondary class:          Humanities and Literature Section

2  weekly periods in the second secondary class:      Sciences Section

3 weekly periods in the third secondary class:           Sociology and Economic Section

2 weekly periods in the third secondary class:           General Science and Life Science Sections

"Philosophy and Civilizations" is considered as an integrated unit in the two academic secondary years in their different sections, despite the apparent distribution of titles: for the purpose of dealing with civilizations, ancient and modern, is to express the common traits of human activities in different times and places, and to show, as possible, the interaction between human Civilizations, mentally and practically.

The same aim is to be found in analyzing the philosophic objectives suggested by the program, for each has its own roots in the history of human thought, as well as its extensions and branches in the present. In approaching those subjects, the program aims at training the teacher and accompanying him in his formation through understanding himself and the other and to discover truth and live values.

In both cases, in Civilization and Philosophy, discussion will greatly depend on texts. No need to indicate the significance of texts in studying historical and philosophic problems: so, prolonged pages on Hamorabi’s law, for example, are in no way the same like the original text itself, put now before the learner to help him for better understanding, checking, and concluding the suitable lessons and results.

The same is to be said of philosophic theories and matters, for analysis despite of its importance hasn’t the same impact of the text itself. Dealing and analyzing texts will, in addition, help the learner to develop his critical spirit and to continue his auto - learning. So, our referring to authors, titles and texts is an inevitable task, in both Arab philosophy and General philosophy.

More over, the program of the third secondary class - Humanities and Literature Section - makes an equivalence between "General philosophy" and "Arab philosophy" issues, not in the aim of drawing a formal parallelism between the texts of both, but in collecting, perhaps, the different viewpoints, if possible and necessary, in one chapter, which fulfills as part of the aim of having an open space for Arab philosophy matters. Our aim is reviving the Arab philosophic heritage, as a part of the human philosophic heritage, unseparated from that which is before or otherwise after.

So, teaching "Philosophy and Civilizations", and its renewed content, do not aim at giving the learner the ultimate and the latest knowledge of Human sciences only, but also to share positively and directly in forming the personality of the learner himself in a sound, balanced and integral way, the finality of all science and knowledge.

Teaching "Philosophy and Civilizations", finally, does not submit to rigid and predetermined rules, for the professor of the material has rather the initiative to choose the suitable approaches within the framework of the general and special objectives of materials.

Further more, this suggested program is not the final end; one of its aims is, rather, to open new horizons touching the modern developments in teaching philosophy and civilization, a method and a content.

 

GENERAL OBJECTIVES :

1-       Recognizing the experiences of peoples in their customs, thoughts and the way they understand themselves and surroundings, due to their own criteria.

2-       Identifying the diversity of Civilizations, concerning especially their systems and activities, in the light of their own value references and their geographic, historical and cultural frameworks.

3-       Recognizing the different modes each civilization had in innovating its own answers and they developed in relation and response to definite conditions and challenges.

4-       Helping the learner to approach civilization as an integral and genuine unity.

5-       Perceiving the lines of interaction between different civilizations and their movements throughout history as an integrated human experience.

6-       Identifying the most essential achievements in Mathematical, experimental and human sciences, and their effects on the life of individuals and groups.

7-       Demonstrating the significance of the Concept of Method, the different types of scientific research and the questions and criticisms they imply.

8-       Identifying the most essential philosophic approaches to constituents of civilizations in both growth and development on the one hard and retarding or descending on the other.

9-       Sharing the space of values and morals, their different functions and the value systems, principles and criteria they include, fulfilled in human behavior.

10-    Recognizing the different philosophic approaches of the domain of theology and its issues in relation to the philosophy of  belief and the finality of existence.

11-    Practicing the philosophic question and the free and creative thought it implies or results.

12-    Developing the objectivity and the critical sense of the learner in dealing with different intellectual and philosophic problems afar from submission, fragmentary visions and simplification.

 

 

TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION OF PERIODS

Stages

Secondary Education

 

First year

Second Year

Third year

Year

 

Humanities

Sciences

Literature and Humanities

Sociology and   Economics

General

 Sciences

Life

Sciences

Weekly periods

-

3

 

2

 

 

9

 

3

2

2

Yearly periods

-

90

60

270

90

60

60

 

 

 

SECOND SECONDARY – HUMANITIES SECTION          

SPECIAL OBJECTIVES

1-      Identifying the concept of Civilization and its main structures.

2-      Understanding the ancient Civilizations, uncovering the sources of thought and philosophy.

3-      Recognizing Arab civilization in both sources and achievements and demonstrating the role of monotheistic religions in its structure as well as its role and future.

4-      Understanding the texts of some great thinkers in the philosophy of civilizations.

5-      Recognizing the necessity of understanding the other, as he introduces himself, and the positive acceptance of the traits he has.

6-      Helping him to express himself, and communicating his milieu positively and openly.

7-      Discovering the ties between the modes of thought and the main characteristics of each culture.

8-      The intellectual and behavioral independences and the positive and active presence, professionally socially and politically.

9-      Insisting the universality of civilization, and the humanism of culture, and the balanced employment of the present achievements, in conformity with the sound demands of the society and the nation, assimilating its values and heritage.

10-   Insisting the cultural and spiritual connection and open-mindness, avoiding passivity, isolationism and alienation.

11-   Forming analytic and critical outlook towards civilizations.

12-   The employment of model achievements in conformity with the sound demands of the society and the nation, to demonstrate the values of his human cultural and spiritual heritage.

13-   Developing the objectivity and the critical sense of the learner in dealing with different intellectual and philosophic problems afar from submission, fragmentary visions and simplification.

 

 

SECOND SECONDARY – HUMANITIES SECTION

Theme

Content

Number of periods

I-  General Introduction

 

a.  Defining civilization and its main structure

b.  The main properties of prehistoric civilizations

6

II- Civilizations

 

 

 

1- Mesopotamic civilizations:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  The Cuneiform writing

c.  The Gelgamish epic

d.  Hamorabi law

 

 

 

 

2- Ancient Egyptian civilization:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  Huiroglaphic writing

c.  The political-religious and intellectual system: The Pharoe-God

d.  The Egyptian Architecture

e.  Medicine, Geometry and astronomy

 

 

  

 

3- The Kanaan-Phoenician  civilization:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  The alphabet

c.  Two scientists: Mochus the sidonian Euclid the tyrian

d.  Two philosophers: Zenon from Tyre Phorphorous from Tyre

 

 

 

21

 

 

4- The Indian - Buddian civilization:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  The unity of the universe

c.  Spirit salvation

d.  The four Casts

e.  The sciences

 

 

 

 

5- The Iranian civilization:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  The Good-evil dualism

c.  The administrative and social systems

 

 

 

 

6- The Greek civilization:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  Philosophic issues: (motion - knowledge - justice)

c.  Scientific achievements: (Medicine - Astronomy - Math)

 

 

 

 

7- Romanian civilization:

a.  The historic and geographic environment

b.  The legislation and the socio-political regime

c.  Architecture

 

 

III- Christianity:

     Some of its Cultural Contribution

1- The historical and cultural environment.

 

 

 

2- The spiritual and cultural renewals:

a.  man’s rights of: life, freedom, peace, equality and belief

b.  the christianal love.

3- The Christian asceticism

4- Christian thinkers: St. August (the City of God) St. John of Damascus (Freedom and    Responsibility)

 

 

 

 

12

IV- Arab Civilization

 

 

 

1- The historical and cultural framework.

3

 

 

2- Islamic sciences :

1-  "Al Kalam"-The main issues (determinism, free choice and justice)

2-  Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence

-    Proofs of Islamic legislation

-    Goals of Islamic legislation

3-  Mysticism:

-    The rising and the origins

-    The effect of world mysticism (Christian, Henduist,Greek)

-    Two trends: Al Ghazali (Texts from Al Ahya), Ibn Arabi (Texts from "Al Futuhat")

-    Moderate and extremist : Al Halaj

 

 

12

 

 

3- Scientific achievements:

a. Translation Movement (between the 8th and the 10th:

    The translators and the main translated

b. Scientific research: the main fields and figures:

-    Math and Astronomy (Al Khawarizmy, Al Bayroni)

-    Medicine and pharmacology :

-    Al Razi in Al-Hawi,IbnSina (Avicenne in "the Law",Ibn-El Bitar in "Al- Jâmi" Limoufradat Al- Aghziâ  Wal - Adwiâ)

-    Physics: Ibn El-Haytham (Ibn Al Hitham) in "Al-Manazer-method and application

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

4- Sociology of  civilization:"Al Umran": Ibn Khaldoun

a.  The fallacies of historians

b.  The necessity of society and the causes of the differentiation

c.  Bedouin Umran (culture of Nomads)

d.  Hadarian Umran (culture of Settled)

e.  The state: origin, age, stages, causes of descending

f.   The state and the civilization

 

 

8

 

 

 

5-  The transmission of Arab philosophy and sciences into medieval Europe

 

 

6

 

 

39

V-  The Philosophy of Civilization

 

 

 

1- Preface: Defining the philosophy of civilization

 

 

 

 

2- Modes and texts:

-    Hegel (The philosophy of history)

-    Toynbee (Challenge and Response)

 

 

12

 

 

Total of periods

90

 

 

 

SECONDARY SECOND – SCIENCES SECTION

SPECIAL OBJECTIVES

1-    Identifying the concept of Civilization and its main structures.

2-    Understanding the ancient Civilizations, the sources of thought and philosophy.

3-    Uncovering the development of scientific methodology through studying the theories of some grate science.

4-    Assimilating the auto formation of some scientists considered as distinguished behavioral types.

5-    Dealing with the challenges which modern technology suggests at the levels of man society and environment.

6-    Deeping the personal attitude towards sciences, as for accepting or otherwise criticizing and reviewing.

7-    Discussing some questions and problems evoked by sciences development and practice.

 

 

SECONDARY SECOND – SCIENCES SECTION

Theme

Content

Number of Periods

I- Introduction

 

 1- Defining civilization and its main structures (the importance of science)

 2- The main characteristics of prehistoric civilizations

10

II- Arab Civilizations

 

 

 

1- The historical and cultural framework

2- Scientific achievements :

a.  Translation Movement (between the 8th and 10th): the translators and the main translated.

b.  Scientific research: the main fields and figures :

-    Math and Astronomy: (Al Khawarizmy, Al Bayroni)

-    Medicine and pharmacology (Al Razi in Al-Hawi, Ibn Sina, Avicenne in “The Law”, Ibn-El Bitar in “Al-JâmiLimoufradât , Al-Aghziâ waladwiâ)

-    Physics: Ibn-El-Haytham (Ibn Al Hithan) in “Al Manâzer: method and application.

 

3- Sociology of civilization ‘Ilm “Al Umran”: Ibn Khaldoun (the prolegomenon)

a.  the fallacies of historians

b.  the necessity of society and the causes of the differentiation

c.  Bedouin Umran (Culture of Nomads)

d.  Hadarian Umran (Culture of settled)

e.  the state : origin, age, stages, causes of descending.

f.   the state and the civilization.

 

4- The influence of Arab philosophy and sciences in Latin Europe.

 

26

III- Modern Western Sciences

 

 

 

1- Astronomy : (Kopernicus, Kepler)

2- Physics (Newton, Einstein)

3- Math (Euclidean, non Euclidean systems and Modern Mathematical systems: Poincaré- Russel)

4- Biology (Darwin, Claude Bernard)

 



 

18

IV- Science

 

 

 

1- Problems and questions.

6

 

 

Total of periods

60

 

 

SECONDARY THIRD

SPECIAL OBJECTIVES

1-      Understanding the scientific achievements social systems and philosophic innovations developed by different civilizations.

2-      Demonstrating the close relationships between different scientific, philosophic and religious modes of thinking, on the one band, and the frameworks of life in its individual, social and cultural levels, on the other.

3-      Helping personality formation of the learner in a balance between both theoretical and practical dimensions.

4-      Developing the learner’s consciousness of belonging to a comprehensive culture.

5-      Developing the learner’s understanding of others, and his positive acceptance and respects of other’s traits.

6-      Developing the learner’s capacities to express himself and interact positively with his milieu or environment.

7-      Developing the learner’s aptitudes and conceptions improving his cognitive and behavioral independence, and insisting his active presence, professionally, socially and politically.

8-      Insisting the balanced employment of the present achievements and resources, in conformity with the soured demands of society and the nation, assimilating its value, cultural and spiritual heritage.

9-      Encouraging the learner to cooperate and interact afar from passiveness, patriotism, cultural and spiritual alienation.

10-   Insisting the values faith, commitment, altruism and responsibility in the behavior and conduct of both individuals and groups.

11-   Developing the objectivity and the critical sense of the learner in dealing with different intellectual and philosophic problems afar from submission, fragmentary visions and simplification.

 

 

SECONDARY THIRD - LITERATURE & HUMANITIES SECTIONS

Theme

Content

Number of Periods

I- Introduction

 

9

II- General Philosophy

 

 

 

1- Man:

a.  Needs and motives

b.  Conscious and unconsciousness

c.  Perception, Memory, Imagination

d.  Habits

e.  Will and Activity

f.   language and thought

g.  Nature and Culture

h.  Personality

 

 

 

2- Society:

a.  Society and interdependence

b.  Labor and social hierarchy

c.  Property and riches

d.  Politics

 

 

 

153

 

3- Knowledge:

a.  An introduction in the theory of knowledge

b.  Modes of knowledge (common, religions, scientific,   philosophical ...)

c.  Methods of knowledge :

-    in Mathematics

-    in experimental sciences

-    in Human sciences

d.  Sciences problem : Technology and society

e.  Science and philosophy

f.   The problem of truth

 

 

 

4- Issues in Metaphysics:

a.  God existence

b.  God and man

c.  Philosophy and religion

d.  Existence finality

 

 

  

 

5- Issues in Ethics:

a.  Good and values (different view points)

b.  Individual moral conscience

c.  Family

d.  Rights and Duties (Justice)

e.  Freedom and responsibility

f.   Human act

 

III- Arab Philosophy

 

 

 

1- Man

    The soul:

a.  its hierarchy, its faculties, its spirituality (Ibn Sina, “Avicenne”)

b.  its immortality (Ibn Sina,“Avicenne”,Ikhwan Al Safa)

c.  The intellect: a substance or an instinct? (Avicenne, Al Muhasibi)

 

 

 

 

 

  

2- On Metaphysic:

a.  The existence of God (Avicenne, Ikhwan, El-Safa-Al Maarri)

b.  God and the human Freedom (the Mutazilites-Al Ghazali)

             

 

  

3- On Ethics:

a.  The issue of Good and Evil (Al Maarri, Al Ghazali, Ibn Arabi)

b.  The virtues and vices (Ibn Maskawaih, Yahya Ben Ady)

 

 

 

96

 

4-  Politics and Society:

a.  The origin of society (Al Farabi, Ibn Khaldoun)

b.  Labor, riches and property (Ikhwan Al-Safa, Al Mawardi, Ibn Khaldoun)

c.  The virtuous state (Al-Farabi, Ikhwan Al-Safa)

 

 

  

5- On theory of knowledge:

a.  Reason and religion (Ibn Rusd, “Averroes” : Fasl Al-Maqal)

b.  The illuminative knowledge (Avicenne : Maqamat Al Arifin, Assuhrawardi : Hikmat Al-Ishraq, Sadr Ed-Dine Al-Shirâzi : Al Asfâr Al-Arbaât)

c.  Doubt and Certitude : (Al-Maari, Al-Ghazali : Al-Munqiz, without the criticism of sects)

d.  Causality : (criticism and the criticism of criticism : Al-Ghazali and Averroes)

 

 

 

 6- Contemporary issues:

a.  East- West problem: (Jamal Eddine Al Afghani, Gibran Khalil Gibran and El Rihani)

b.  Heritage and modernism: (Mohamad Abdo, Chakib Arslan and Farah Antoun)

c.  Liberty and progress: ( Farah Antoun, Al Kawakby and Al Rihani)

 

12

 

Total of periods

270

 

 

 

SECONDARY THIRD - SOCIOLOGY & ECONOMIC SECTIONS

Theme

Content

Numbre of Periods

I-  Introduction

 

6

II- Man

 

 

 

a.  Needs and motives

b.  Consciousness and unconsciousness

c.  Perception, Memory, Imagination (cognitive view point)

d.  Intelligence

e.  Language and thought

 

24

III- Knowledge

 

 

 

a.  Scientific knowledge

b.  Methods of knowledge:

-    in Mathematics

-    in experimental sciences

-    in human sciences (socio-economic sciences)

c.  Sciences problems:

-    objective and normative knowledge

-    determinism and indeterminism

d.  Science and philosophy

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

IV- Issues in Ethics

 

 

 

e.  Good and values (different view points)

a.  individual moral conscience

b.  Family

c.  Rights and  duties (Justice)

d.  Freedom and responsibility

e.  Labor and property

f.   Human act

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total of Periods

90

 

 

 

SECONDARY THIRD - GENERAL SCIENCE AND LIFE SCIENCE SECTIONS

Theme

Content

Number of Periods

I-  Introduction

 

6

II-  Man

 

 

 

a.  Needs and motives

b.  Consciousness and unconsciousness

c.  Perception, Memory, Imagination (cognitive view point)

d.  Intelligence

e.  Language and thought

 

18

III- Knowledge

 

 

 

a.  Scientific knowledge

b.  Methods of knowledge:

-    in Mathematics

-    in experimental sciences

-    in human sciences (socio-economic sciences)

c.  Sciences problems:

-    objective and normative knowledge

-    determinism and indeterminism

d.  Science and philosophy

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

IV- Issues in Ethics

 

 

 

a.  Good and values (different view points)

b.  individual moral conscience

c.  Family

d.  Rights and  duties (Justice)

e.  Freedom and responsibility

f.   Human act

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

 

 

Total of Periods

60